The Online-Library of the Digital Forum Central and Eastern Europe

The Digital Forum Central and Eastern Europe (DiFMOE e.V.) has run a specialized and freely accessible library with historical documents on Eastern Europe for over 10 years now. At the beginning of 2021, its stock of periodicals contained 245 titles, including 106 newspapers, 73 annual periodicals (yearbooks, school reports etc.), 35 almanacs and 27 magazines / journals. In addition, there are about 1,030 books, 3,113 image- and archival documents. The total number of pages is over 2,000,000. [s. Illustration 1] 

The idea of the following article is to give the reader an overview as to type and content in this fund. As the name indicates, the Digital Forum is de facto a semi-virtual institution with real people behind it, yet without any physical stock of its own. Thus, all digital stocks originate in the context of individual projects which – sometimes event-related, sometimes initiated out of a situational opportunity for synergetic co-operation – form a portfolio of resources that is heterogeneous in many respects. Its genesis will be retraced accordingly: A brief outline of the thematic and geographical foci of the DiFMOE will be followed by a largely chronological presentation of the larger sub-projects, including document examples and direct links to the digital Online Library. Somewhat broader space will be devoted to the latest collection “Jewish-German Bukovina 1918 +.” Regular mentions of our essential co-operation partners and lenders of original documents may serve the readers as information on opportunities for own research into primary sources. They may also illustrate how much the network of historical ethnical interdependencies and their respective developments is reflected in the fact that testimonies of the cultural heritage of greater “Eastern Europe” are so widely dispersed, geographically and institutionally. As newspapers and magazines / journals are a particularly important source for research into inter-ethnic relations and their historical, cultural, and political implications, the focus of this description will be on the Digital Library’s stock of periodicals.

Founded in 2008 and based in Munich, the Digital Forum Central and Eastern Europe (DiFMOE e.V.) has made it its mission to digitize the historical printed works of the multi-ethnic cultural landscapes of Eastern Europe, especially those with (formerly) larger German or German-speaking populations, and make them accessible via the Internet for academic research and for the interested general public.[1] For the realization of its projects, the DiFMOE collaborates with numerous institutional and private partners in Germany, Israel, Croatia, Lithuania, Austria, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Czechia, Hungary, and the USA.

During its first years, the Digital Forum was exclusively focused on digitizing historical German-language periodicals (mainly newspapers and magazines), but its profile in terms of source categories has changed now. Meanwhile, not only periodicals but also books (monographs, serials, smaller publications), historical records, and graphical material (photographs, postcards etc.) are included in its work, and it is no longer limited to German-language material either. Today, the main objective is to present sources that reveal aspects of the historical life circumstances of German-speaking population groups in Eastern Europe and of the relations between them and their respective neighbours.[2]

In 2008, the first of the DiFMOE-projects dealt with the Karpathen-Post, a newspaper published between 1880 and 1942 in Kežmarok [German: Kesmark or Käsmark] in what is Slovakia today.[3] [s. Illustration 2] The enterprise was financed by the Bavarian State Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Affairs and the Carpathian German Homeland Association in Bavaria. The original documents were made available by the Martin-Opitz Library Herne, from the estate of the publisher family Sauter.[4] The volume comprised around 18,000 pages. In their digital form, they were full-text searchable, already had an early time-scale function, and could be viewed on the first internet platform of the Digital Forum, the predecessor of today’s Digital Library.[5] The Karpathen-Post is considered a press product of high journalistic quality. As a chronicle and soundboard of the Zipser Germans, it actively represented their interests, initially during the Magyarization processes in Upper Hungary and later in the independent Czechoslovak Republic created after 1918.[6]

Concurrently, the application submitted to the Bavarian-Slovakian Governmental Commission developed into the sub-project Pressburger Zeitung (1764-1929, titles vary). This project was considerably more comprehensive, both in terms of quantity (parent paper and supplements amount to over 300,000 pages) and with regard to the increased number of collaboration partners involved: The original documents came from the Archive of the City of Bratislava and the Hungarian National Library (OSZK), in roughly equal portions. The OSZK digitized its own inventory, whereas the original documents from Bratislava City Archive were handed over to the Library of the University of Bratislava (UKB) to be scanned. The digital raw images were exchanged between both libraries, were merged, and finally made available to the DiFMOE for processing and placing them online.[7] Work on the completion of this prominent paper is in progress to this day and has only recently been continued in a co-operation with the Burgenland Regional Library (Eisenstadt, Austria). The effort expended on digital indexing (by now over ten years of work), is undoubtedly in proportion to the importance of the Pressburger Zeitung. It is the first and at the same time the most important German-language paper in the territory of today’s Slovakia, respectively even on the territory of former Hungary. It is also the one with the longest publication period. Already in its early years, the Pressburger Zeitung was credited for its topicality, which it owed to a wide European network of correspondents. Not only were they independent of reports from other important newspapers– in the region mainly those in Vienna – to produce their own content but they even were a source of news for their competitors.[8]

A similarly comprehensive project was carried out in two stages between 2009 and the beginning of 2011 in collaboration with the Moravian Library (MZK) in Brno [German: Brünn]. This time, the focus was on the most influential Moravian German-language daily newspaper of the time – the Tagesbote (Brno, 1850-1944, titles varied). [s. Illustration 3] The project could be realized thanks to funding from the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (BKM) on the German side and the Culture Ministry of the Czech Republic. In this project, microform templates from the holdings of the Moravian Library were processed, with labour and costs divided between the MZK and the DiFMOE.[9]

The beginnings of the Tagesbote are part of a founding wave of professional liberal journalism that was inspired by the Revolutionary Year of 1848. In its first year of publication, under the name of Fremden-Blatt, the papermet with very little interest from the readers in Brno. This was likely due to the large number of mere copies from the official journals in Vienna and Brno. Success came with the takeover by the company “Buschak and Irrgang“. “Buschak and Irrgang“ had their own printing house and even their own business news service and published the paper under the name of Neuigkeiten. From 1876 on, the paper was distributed under the name of Tagesbote and no longer only locally. The fact that it found subscribers in places like Vienna and Prague speaks for its high standard.[10]

Another “BKM-project” on “German-language Periodicals in Central and Eastern Europe” was initiated in 2011 by the DiFMOE co-operation partner IOS (the Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, then still Southeast-Institute) in Regensburg. It was realized and continued in follow-up projects. In this project, selected newspapers and almanacs from the inventories of the IOS library and numerous partnering institutions in the scope of several hundreds of thousands of pages were digitized in various locations. The results were made available on the website of the Digital Forum, full-text searchable and for free use. Partnering institutions were the Bavarian State Library (Munich), the Federal Institute for Culture and History of the Germans in Eastern Europe (BKGE, Oldenburg), the Caritas-Bibliothek (Freiburg), the Herder-Institute (Marburg), the Martin-Opitz-Library (Herne), the National- and University Library Ljubljana, the Austrian National Library, the Győr-Moson-Sopron County Sopron Archives at the Hungarian National Archives, the Transylvanian Library and Transylvanian Archive (Gundelsheim), the Berlin State Library, and the University of Maribor Library.

They have in the meantime also been made available in the new Digital Library, as sources on the history of Germans and their neighbours in Central and Eastern Europe, including - just to name some exemplary titles to illustrate the wide regional dispersion – the Marburger Zeitung (Maribor / Marburg a. d. Drau, 1862-1945), the Oedenburger Zeitung (Sopron / Ödenburg, 1868-1941), the Siebenbürgisch-Deutsches Tageblatt (Sibiu / Hermannstadt, 1874-1941), the Kaukasische Post (Tbilissi / Tiflis, 1906-1922) and the Banater Deutsche Zeitung (Timișoara / Temeswar, 1925-1944).

Also in 2012, the DifMOE’s largest internal project to date in terms of budget, pages digitized, number of collaborating institutions and their countries of origin, and diversity of types of sources was started, and concluded in the spring of 2013: the Cassovia Digitalis.[11] The series of digital libraries of Europe’s Capitals of Culture situated in Eastern Europe that had started with Cassovia Digitalis (Košice 2013) and then continued year on year with Riga Digitalis (Riga 2014), Pilsna Digitalis (Pilsen 2015) and Wratislavia Digitalis (Wrocław 2016) would end the exclusive focus on the digitization of historical periodicals, but periodicals with titles such as Kaschau-Eperieser Kandschaftsblatt (Košice, 1838-1871), Kaschauer Zeitung  (Košice, 1872-1914), Rigasche Anzeigen  (Riga, 1762-1852),Rigaische Stadtblätter (Riga, 1810-1907), Pilsner Tagblatt (Pilsen, 1900-1930) or Westböhmische Tageszeitung (Pilsen 1930-1938) still form a major part of the libraries’ holdings. Thematic clustering, geographical limitation and deliberate narrowing down the scope in terms of volumes and variety of categories of objects selected from the publication history of the respective Capital of Culture have helped achieve a better overview of materials. This will also appeal to a historically interested lay public in that users will not be buried under a mountain of sources. Grouped ideal-typically, the selected periodicals, books, graphical documents and other archival objects mainly include those that were printed in the respective Capital of Culture itself, as well as foreign print products that referred to it. This includes as source categories newspapers, magazines, directories, almanacs, school bulletins, anthologies, multi-volume works, monographs, official and private archival objects, photographs, picture postcards and posters. The thematic interest lies particularly with the history of the cities and the urban population, but other fields beyond these will be represented as well. From case to case, it depends on the literary and journalistic production of local institutional or individual protagonists, but also on quite practical aspects, such as the availability of the respective originals for digitization. In this respect, mainly with the help of the Martin-Opitz-Library, consistent partnerships have been established with various other thematically and geographically relevant institutions in Germany. Among them are the Collegium Carolinum (Munich), the Haus Schlesien (Königswinter), the Herder Institute (Marburg), the Kulturwerk Schlesien (Würzburg), the Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations (Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen, Stuttgart), the Institute for Culture and History of the Germans in Southeastern Europe (Munich), and the Nordost-Institut (Luneburg). At the same time, involving local partners – typically municipal and regional archives and libraries – has been an essential element of the project from the outset. Sometimes it has resulted in partnerships that range from private collectors or family archives to the respective national library. Thus, for instance, the East Slovak Museum, the Public Library Jan Bocatius and Ľudovít Korotnoky, a private collector (Košice), were on board with the Cassovia Digitalis. The Latvian National Library was on board with the Riga Digitalis project, and the Library of the Tepla Abbey, the municipal archive, the Museum of West Bohemia, and the municipal library (all in Pilsen) were partners for the Riga Digitalis. For historical reasons, the Vienna City Library in City Hall (Wienbibliothek im Rathaus) and the Austrian National Library have been regular crossover-partners as well.

To enhance the (then still separate) online presentations of the documents made available for digitization by these institutions, a layout was designed that fit the theme and the occasion. This specific way of refining the presentation of original historical sources together with the “Capital of Culture”-drawing card attracted media and public attention that was uncommonly high for niche projects. The German Press Agency (DPA) even saw the Cassovia Digitalis as one of the “most sustainable projects” in the context of the Kosice Capital of Culture year.[12] The Capital of Culture status also provides an ideal environment to use synergies effectively. Here, in the context of public relations, close collaboration with the German Culture Forum for Central and Eastern Europe in Potsdam and the local Goethe Institutes and their respective capital-of-culture activities have turned out to be particularly productive. A first and quite special synergetic effect arose from the collaboration on Riga Digitalis: By digitizing the material provided by our partner institutes in Germany and exchanging the digitized copies with the National Library of Latvia, both partners received 100.000 additional pages of valuable cultural assets and items of cultural heritage with the same budget. Similar exchange projects could recently be carried out with the Moravian Library, the Austrian National Library and the Provincial Library of Burgenland and are also intended for ongoing and future ventures.

Speaking of budget: The Digital Forum Central and Eastern Europe does not have assets of its own but depends on funding by donations and third-party funding for realizing its projects.  The main sponsor is the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media (BKM), on the basis of §96 of the Federal Expellees Act. Smaller projects have been co-funded by the Bavarian State Ministry for Family, Work and Social Affairs, the Goethe-Institute Bratislava, the Karpatendeutsches Kulturwerk (Karlsruhe), the Carpathian German Homeland Association Slovakia (Košice) and the Institute for Southeastern European German Culture and History (IKGS, Munich). Without their financial support, the Capital of Culture libraries-project could not have been realized, nor any of the subsequent projects:

The collection Brünn tied in with the digitization of the Tagesbote from 2009-2012. It was supposed to make accessible further Brno periodicals and at the same time expand the relevant digital fund – analogous to the Digitalis-concept meanwhile established – to include additional categories of objects, such as books and photographs. As for the periodicals, a temporal focus was made on the first half of the 20th century, mainly the 20s and 30s – i.e., the interwar period. Thus, for this period of political and inter-ethnic conflict, quite a dense and politically and ideologically heterogeneous collection of source material on Brno and Moravia was created in digital format. With the most documents in its archives, the Organization for International Cultural Relations also became the most important partner in this project. It provided: The Brünner Montagsblatt  (Brno, 1921-1929), Deutscher Landruf  (Brno, 1923-1938), Sudetendeutsche Volkszeitung  (Brno, 1930-1933), Sudetendeutscher Landbote  (Brno, 1927-1933), Sudetendeutscher Landbund  (Brno, 1934), Südmährer-Blatt  (Brno, 1921-1923), Brünner Tagespost  (Brno, 1923-1933), Verständigung  (Brno, 1922-1925), and Der Volkswart  (Brno, 1933-1934). These titles were complemented by the originals of the Volkswille  (Brno, 1920-1935) from the library of the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation (Bonn). In addition to numerous smaller periodicals, the Collegium Carolinum contributed the original documents of the Gemeinde-Verwaltung and Gemeinde-Statistik der Landeshauptstadt Brünn  (Brno, 1895-1914) and the Protokolle der öffentlichen Gemeinderatssitzungen  (Brno, 1880-1917), as far as they exist.

In monographic material, the Martin-Opitz Library and once more the Collegium Carolinum made their respective Brünn collections available. The Moravian Library gave us a free choice as well, and the necessary thematic decision was made in favour of the historical cityscape. In parallel and within the scope of the same project, the digital library infrastructure of the DiFMOE underwent a complete renewal in which all existing project contents were merged. The new digital solution for the library is based on the Czech Kramerius-system. It boasts sophisticated search and filter functions and is under constant development in collaboration with the developers of the Kramerius consortium in Czechia.[13]

In April 2018, the collection Pressburg was initiated. It continued DiFMOE’s first large and long-term project “Digitization of the Pressburger Zeitung and its supplements” and further completed it where possible. The biggest new addition to the periodicals was now the Westungarische Grenzbote  (Bratislava / Pressburg, 1872-1919), which had been founded as a competitor to the Pressburger Zeitung and had developed from a paper for the anti-capitalist but moderate left into an anti-semitic newspaper. This development provides an untapped field for research, not least as a comparative study that includes the Pressburger Zeitung.[14] Further additions were the two political papers Westungarische Volksstimme  (Bratislava, 1902-1918) and the Westungarische Volks-Zeitung  (Bratislava, 1896-1902), as well as the Deutsche Nachrichten  (Bratislava, 1923-1925), the Deutsche Stimme  (Bratislava, 1934-1945), the B. Z. am Abend  (Bratislava, 1923-1924), the Deutsches Genossenschaftsblatt  (Bratislava, 1940-1943), Die karpatendeutsche Bauernzeitung  (Bratislava, 1939-1943) and the Neues Pressburger Tagblatt  (Bratislava, 1930-1935) which was in the tradition of the Pressburger Zeitung. In addition, there was a selection of smaller periodicals (two almanacs and a supplement to the Pressburger Zeitung), books, historical records and graphical objects, among them thitherto unpublished historical photographs of the cityscape and urban everyday life by Viktor Beneš and photographs from the estate of the architect Christian Ludwig.

The overall period covered spans from the 18th century to the first half of the 20th century, as it does typically also with the Digitalis-projects. The Burgenland Regional Library, the Organization for International Cultural Relations and the Collegium Carolinum (Munich) provided the periodical and monographic originals. The photographs were provided by the Slovak National Museum / Museum of Carpathian German Culture (Bratislava) and the private archive of Horst Ludwig (Vienna), son of the architect Christian Ludwig.

An external contribution came at around the same time from the Institute of German Studies at the University of Giessen, as part of the research programme “Traces of German Language, Literature and Culture in Croatia”. The purpose of the programme is “to explore exchange relationships in the linguistic, literary, and cultural field between the German immigrants and the native Croatian populations”. Funded by the BKM, the two newspapers Die Drau (Osijek / Esseg, 1868-1939) and the Slavonische Presse (Osijek, 1885-1929) as well as the almanac Essegger Bote (Osijek, 1889-1915) were digitized in Croatia and incorporated into the DiFMOE digital library. The corresponding originals are in the National and University Library in Zagreb and the Museum of Slavonia (Osijek).[15]

It was an even earlier external input that ultimately led to a lasting thematic and content-related expansion of the DiFMOE-spectrum: Already in 2015, the Leibniz-Institut für Ost- and Südosteuropaforschung (Regensburg) started their project “Jewish German-language Periodicals, Almanacs for the Millions, and Graphical Representation of Jews in Eastern Europe. Digitization and Documentation”, funded, as before, by the BKM. [s. Illustration 4] The library of the Hochschule für jüdische Studien (Heidelberg), the Institute for Southeastern European German Culture and History (Munich), the University Library of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich and the Hungarian National Library contributed as lenders, and the DiFMOE collaborated as the technical and infrastructural partner. The aim of the project was to “contribute to the lasting preservation of the cultural heritage of German-speaking Jewish populations in Eastern Europe”.[16] The titles initially collected on the former DiFMOE-platform and now in the digital library are from Bratislava (amongst others the Pressburger Jüdische Zeitung, 1908-1909), from Wrocław / Breslau (amongst others the Jüdisches Volksblatt, 1896-1913 and its successors Jüdische Volkszeitung, 1913-1923; Jüdische Zeitung für Ostdeutschland, 1924-1931 and Jüdische Zeitung, 1932-1937), from Brno (Hickls Illustrierter Jüdischer Hauskalender, 1902-1939), from Budapest (amongst others the Allgemeine illustrierte Judenzeitung, 1860-1862; the Jüdische Pester Zeitung, 1870-1888, in Yiddish, with Hebrew letters; Der ungarische Israelit, 1874-1908; the Allgemeine jüdische Rundschau, 1907-1911 and the Ungarländische jüdische Zeitung, 1910-1915, the successor of the Pressburger Jüdische Zeitung), from Chernivtsi (the Ostjüdische Zeitung, 1919-1937 and the Neue Jüdische Rundschau, 1926-1930), from Ostrava / Mährisch-Ostrau (Jüdischer Kalender für die čechoslowakische Republik, 1922-1923), from Poznań / Posen (amongst others Jeschurun, 1901-1904), from Prague (amongst others Das Abendland, 1864-1868; Die Gegenwart, 1867-1870; the Israelitische Gemeinde-Zeitung, 1897-1901; Jung Juda, 1900-1935 [s. Illustration 5]; the Selbstwehr, 1907-1938; the Jüdischer Almanach, 1924-1938), from Pribram / Příbram (Israelitischer Lehrerbote, 1875-1883) and from Timișoara (amongst others Neue Zeit, 1922-1940; Israelitischer Kalender, 1926-1930).

In a next step, illustrations and photographs were extracted from the digitized periodicals by the IOS and incorporated into the Digital Library by the DiFMOE, together with descriptive meta-data. The new technical possibilities now opened up an opportunity to draw on this basic stock to create the collection of “Jewish Culture and History in Eastern Europe”, a compilation designed for continuous expansion. It was further enriched with thematically relevant documents from existing collections, respectively the total existing stocks of the Digital Library, and vice versa. The Wrocław Judaica from the IOS-project were also incorporated in the Wratislavia Digitalis, and those from Bratislava were incorporated into the DiFMOE collection Pressburg and are now available there.

Collection “Jüdisch-Deutsche Bukowina 1918+”

The collection “Jewish Culture and History in eastern Europe” [s. Illustration 6] finally gained significantly through the project “Jüdisch-Deutsche Bukowina 1918+”. It started in May 2019 and its contents were integrated both into the parent collection of topics and into a separate one under the project title.  In this case, too, funding was provided by the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media and, as part of an immediately following extension project, by the Bavarian State Ministry for Family, Labour and Social Affairs. Below, the initial situation, as well as objectives and content of the project are described in more detail:

 

The historical context 

Bukovina was part of the Kievan Rus’ in the 10th and 11th century and in the 14th century became part of the Voivodeship of Moldavia, which fell under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. After the Habsburg acquisition in 1774, Bukovina was initially under military administration and later, in 1786, was given the status of an administrative district as part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. In 1849, Bukovina became an independent Austrian crown land in the rank of a duchy until the Habsburg Monarchy disintegrated after the First World War and the entire region came under the rule of the Kingdom of Romania. In 1940, as part of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, Bukovina was divided in a northern Soviet-Ukrainian and a southern Romanian part. The Romanian-German attack on the Soviet Union only temporarily reversed this development. In 1944, the territory was permanently divided into a Ukrainian half with Chernivtsi [German: Czernowitz] and a Romanian half with Suczawa as its administrative centre.[17]

The political developments – presented in a very condensed manner here – brought about significant changes both in the ethnic structures of the population and the relationships between the groups. Epithets for Bukovina such as “Switzerland of the East” or “Europe in a Nutshell” became particularly popular in the period between the two world wars. They invoked a seemingly long and peaceful coexistence of the various nationalities. While such epithets indeed somewhat reflect these processes, they are today considered to be a romanticization of the actual multi-ethnic coexistence and the contemporary situation, which indeed was not always free of conflict. The fact that quite diverse forms of occupations and employment prevailed among the respective ethnic groups potentially created social tensions. Around 1910, 90% of Romanians and Ukrainians worked in small-scale occupations in agriculture and forestry. Their share in industry, trade, commerce, transport, public service, military and liberal professions was between 2 and 5 percent, whereas that of the Jews, Germans (or Austrians respectively) and Poles was significantly higher there.[18]

With the collapse of the monarchy, political tensions between the different ethnic groups increased. A week after the Romanian occupation of Chernivtsi on November 11, 1918, the new rulers summoned the “General Congress of Bukovina” and had the delegates vote on a union with the Kingdom of Romania. The outcome was as they had hoped for, if only primarily because the Romanian group, contrary to the actual ethnic proportion, was able to provide 48 deputies out of a total of 74 delegates invited. Jewish representatives waived participation altogether because their population group had not been guaranteed the protection of the rights they had been granted during the monarchy. Such rights did not exist before 1923 in that form in the Kingdom of Romania. The German demand for cultural autonomy was met at first, whereas Ukrainian representatives were not even invited.[19]

What followed was a gradual but soon repressive Romanianization of the non-Romanian population, even though Ukrainians, Jews, Germans and Poles as the largest population groups accounted for 60% of the total population. The Ukrainian population came under the most pressure, which resulted in violent clashes. Since the 1920s the German population, too, experienced a restriction of rights. The number of their own-language schools was substantially reduced, for example, with only one of them left in the school year of 1927/28 – out of 68 eight years earlier. For the Jews, too, it was made difficult to come to terms with the new circumstances and to identify with the new state. The granting of equal rights was delayed; many Jews went abroad to study and became involved in the Zionist movement. Despite this and despite the parliamentary crises, the 1920s are seen in a relatively positive light regarding developments towards democracy. However, towards their end, parties that were hostile towards minorities gained considerable power and influence. Finally, in 1934, there were demands to restrict education and employment opportunities for Jews and Ukrainians. From 1937 on, with the national-Christian party in power, state anti-Semitism increased. Many Jews – around one-third of the population group in Bukovina before 1939 – were deprived of their citizenship. Among them were numerous long-established citizens of Chernivtsi.[20] At this point, political arrangements based on shared interests between the conservative-moderate representatives of the German and the Jewish minorities had long since come to an end.[21]

When, as mentioned above, in 1940, the northern part of Bukovina was occupied by the Soviet Union, the consequences for the population were expropriation and nationalization. 12,000 inhabitants of Bukovina, 3,500 of them Jews, were deported. Large numbers of Romanians fled to the southern part of the country, which was still Romanian; the Germans were relocated from both parts of the country to occupied territories or the German Reich itself after both countries had signed agreements to that effect with Germany. When Romania, as an ally of the German Reich, temporarily retook possession of Northern Bukovina after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the situation became disastrous for the Jews. Resident Jews were seen as pro-Soviet collaborators. They were persecuted with this justification and subjected to repressions and assaults by various groups. In the summer of 1941, pogroms occurred, carried out by special units but also by civilians. Shortly afterwards, the Jewish population was forced into ghettoes and later deported to Transnistria. How many people fell victim to the “Romanian Holocaust”, the mass executions, diseases, epidemics, and starvation, is not accurately known.[22] The International Commission of Historians estimates the numbers at 150,000–180,000.[23] Chernivtsi itself is an exception in this context: The mayor of the city, Dr. Traian Popovici, had special identity cards handed out, and up to 20,000 Jews were therefore able to survive genocide and war.[24] Many of those who managed to return from deportation and those who had somehow survived the war in Bukovina later decided to emigrate. They first emigrated to Romania, Germany or Austria and decided to settle permanently in Palestine (since 1948: in the state of Israel), in North America and other parts of the world later.

The Jewish-German Press in Bukovina and Chernivtsi / Czernowitz

If Bukovina was “Europe in a Nutshell” for its contemporaries, its capital Chernivtsi was on a par with it as “Little Vienna of the East”, a microcosm of the multi-ethnic Habsburg Monarchy. Other epithets, such as “Jerusalem on the Pruth”, “The Second Canaan” or “The Jewish El Dorado of Austria”, make a more specific reference to the vital role of the Jews in Chernivtsi’s multi-ethnic and multi-denominational population. The Jew population, however, was by no means a group homogeneous within itself, but reflected the various cultural, political and religious currents among the Jewry of the time.[25]

From 1812, a certificate of permanent residence allowed individual Jews to settle down in Bukovina. From 1868, when legal equality with Christian citizens was finally established, the Jewish population increased substantially. It reached a share of 13% around 1900, which was roughly the same as that of the Germans. Many Jews lived in Chernivtsi (about 29,000 around 1910, 32 percent of the city’s total population); the Jewish community there was by then the third largest in the Monarchy, after Vienna and Lviv. While in rural Bukovina, Ukrainian and Romanian clearly dominated both ethnically and language-wise, the predominantly German-speaking Jews and the German population formed the most prominent language group in the Bukovinian capital.[26] The conservative middle-class Jewish population adopted German primarily in the interest of rapid assimilation, soon with a claim to assume the cultural representation of the Austrian centre on the imperial periphery.[27] To describe the special relationship between Jews and Germans – two groups who have shaped the urban life in a particular way – the German concept of “Kultursymbiose” (cultural symbiosis) was used. However, the social reality behind this notion, which itself was fiercely rejected, did not prevail and was doomed to disappear in the 1930s at the latest.[28] The extraordinary publishing activity of Chernivtsi – measured by the number of inhabitants – is both an expression and a reflection of the capital’s cultural, social and political fabric. It includes the literary production and the diverse press, with the separation of the two sectors rather an artificial one, given the numerous literary publications in the periodical press products. Especially the German language press was so highly developed and comprehensive in Chernivtsi that the city and its surroundings are considered its most important areas of dissemination outside the German-language core territories between 1848 and 1940.[29] It was the “local conservative middle-class” – where German-speaking Jews, assimilated or not, formed the majority – that maintained the press already during the Habsburg reign.[30] The spectrum of publications ranged from organs of the intra-Jewish (party-)political, religious, linguistic and cultural discourse to papers that were published by Jews but had no national connotation.[31] Especially the blossoming of the German-language press after 1918 may be surprising at first glance and in the context of the new situation within Greater Romania. However, it can be understood as a means for the non-Romanian, urban-middle-class, hence predominantly Jewish or German population groups to compensate for the loss of political capital they had to suffer. With the help of their press, they now created and communicated an “alternative to the Romanian national discourse.”[32]

Even during the interwar period, the newspapers from the Jewish-German context were still among the most important and most read: Between 1927 and 1933, for example, the leading “literary pandit” of Chernivtsi, Alfred Margul-Sperber, oversaw the arts and culture section of the Czernowitzer Morgenblatt. [s. Illustration 7] He promoted authors such as Moses Rosenkranz, Rose Ausländer, David Goldfeld, Kubi Wohl, Jona Gruber and Paul Celan, and discussed their works in his newspaper reviews. His essay “The Invisible Chorus. Draft of an Overview of German Literature in Bukovina” [“Der unsichtbare Chor. Entwurf eines Grundrisses des deutschen Schrifttums in der Bukowina”], published in 1928 in several series, was the first attempt at a systematic representation of the German literature of Bukovina. Margul-Sperber’s industrious publishing activity was often directed against the political situation of the time. His poem “Der Fackelläufer” (“The Torchbearer”), published in 1936 in the left liberal middle-class Czernowitzer Tagblatt, provoked polemical reactions in Bukovina, Transylvania and in Nazi Germany, which he, in turn, met with a journalistic response. Between 1926 and 1928 and later between 1931 and 1933, the already mentioned Jewish poet Rose Ausländer published numerous poems in various Chernivtsi newspapers, among them the Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung, which saw itself as politically independent, the Czernowitzer Morgenblatt, and Der Tag.[33] Analogous to the producers, the readership of these papers consisted primarily of German-acculturated Jewish middle-class residents of the city. The Czernowitzer Morgenblatt was published by Elias Weinstein and Julius Weber, with the latter also acting as a minority advocate in his newspaper. The distribution of the papers was not limited to Bukovina alone, but reached out to readers in Bessarabia, the old Kingdom of Romania, and eastern Galicia.[34] The Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung, founded by Philipp Menczel in 1904 (actually, as early as the end of 1903) and headed by Arnold Schwarz from 1918 on, gave a voice to authors of most varied political origins. Among them were the Zionist politician Mayer Ebner, founder of the Ostjüdische Zeitung  [s. Illustration 8], the Jewish-nationalist Benno Straucher or the Jewish social-democratic Iakob Pistiner.[35] In 1932, Arnold Schwarz, who had left the Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung, founded the daily newspaperDer Tag, which was able to rely on its own European network of correspondents in its journalistic work, and which sought to maintain a neutral attitude towards the nationalities.[36]

The Ostjüdische Zeitung was considered the mouthpiece of the Zionists and Hebraists. Just as the Di frayhayt, a paper published in Yiddish and thus in intra-Jewish rivalry, it became a forum for discursive discussion. Topics that were politically controversial in multi-ethnic Bukovina, such as language teaching in schools, were discussed there, under the signs of the respective ideological orientations.[37] Another Yiddish paper, the Tschernovitser Bletter developed into a publication that became highly critical of the Romanian government, especially vis-a-vis its minority policy. The still diverse press landscape of Chernivtsi was further enriched by the Czernowitzer Tagblatt (see above), published by the well-established Jewish journalist Ernst Maria Flinker in the 1930s, not long before the political developments up to the war and ultimately the holocaust would put an end to it all forever.[38]

Elias Weinstein, the co-founder of the Czernowitzer Morgenblatt, was able to escape to Palestine even during the war, where he started publishing Die Stimme again as early as 1944. Julius Weber was murdered in the Shoa. From the very beginning, Die Stimme was aimed primarily at the Bukovina Jews in exile and emigration. The paper became the organ and communication centre of the “World Organisation of Bukovina Jews” in Israel and is still published under their editorship today.

 

Project Topic 

The “Jüdisch-Deutsche Bukowina 1918+” project takes up chronologically after ANNO’s (Austrian Newspapers Online, Austrian National Library) digitization of German-language papers of Bukovina that were published up to the end of First World War which has been carried out in collaboration with the BKM-funded “Digitale Topographie der multikulturellen Bukowina” project. “Jüdisch-Deutsche Bukowina 1918+” focuses mainly on the period between the two world wars, the Second World War and the German and Romanian Holocaust, and the time of return to Bukovina, respectively the final emigration of most of the surviving Jewish population from Bukovina to Israel, the USA and other places. The digitization of the following newspapers published in the Jewish-German context of Bukovina is complete, and the material has been placed online:

Arbeter-Tsaytung | Verified: 1921-1925 | Available in digital form: 1921, 1923-1925

Die Bombe: Halbmonatsschrift für Politik, Wirtschaft, Literatur and Satire (published by H. Goldmann and F. Gerbel) | Verified: 1935 | Available in digital form: 1935

Czernowitzer Allgemeine Zeitung (post-war paper, published by Philipp Menczel, Mendel Abraham and Arnold Schwarz) | Verified: 1920-1938 | Available in digital form: 1921-1938

Czernowitzer Deutsche Tagespost | Verified: 1924-1940 | Available in digital form: 1924-1940

Czernowitzer Morgenblatt (published by Elias Weinstein and Julius Weber) | Verified: 1918-1940 | Available in digital form: 1921-1940

Czernowitzer Tagblatt (published by Ernst Maria Flinker) | Verified: 1935-1938 | Available in digital form: 1935-1938

Di frayhayt: Organ fun der yudisher sotsyalistischer abayterpartey "Poale Tsien" in der Bukovina | Verified: 1919-1924  | Available in digital form: 1919-1924 (incomplete)

Das freie Wort | Verified: 1923-1926 | Available in digital form: 1924 (incomplete)

Die Gemeinschaft: Zeitschrift für soziale Kultur (published by K. Sachter) | Verified: 1928-1930 | Available in digital form: 1928-1930

Kultur: zšurnal far literatur, kunst and pedagogik | Verified: 1921  | Available in digital form: 1921

Das neue jüdische Palästina | Verified: 1925 | Available in digital form: 1925

Oyfboy | Verified: 1937 | Available in digital form: 1937

Die Stimme (Israel) | Verified: 1944-2017 | Available in digital form: 1944-2017

Der Tag | Verified: 1932-1935 | Available in digital form: 1932-1935

Tšernowitzer bleter | Verified: 1930-1937 | Available in digital form: 1933-1937 (incomplete)

Already part of the DiFMOE holdings, the following titles were incorporated into the collection as well:

Neue Jüdische Rundschau | Verified: 1926-1930 | Available in digital form: 1926-1930

Ostjüdische Zeitung : Organ der jüdischen Nationalpartei in der Bukowina | Verified: 1919-1937 | Available in digital form: 1919-1937

In addition to digitizing and placing online this corpus of periodical sources in collaboration with the Institute for Culture and History of the Germans in Southeastern Europe (Munich), the Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations (Stuttgart), the Universitäts- and Landesbibliothek Düsseldorf, the Bukovina-Institute (Augsburg), the National Library of Israel (Jerusalem), the “World Organisation of Bukovina Jews”, holder of the copyright of “Die Stimme”, and the Landsmannschaft of the Bukovina Jews (both Israel) and the Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg (IOS), the DiFMOE in collaboration with the “Czernowitz Discussion Group”, a global virtual association of around 500 Jewish Holocaust survivors of Bukovina and their descendants, organized the integration of selected titles from the group’s own archives with valuable personal and familiy-related contemporary historical documents into the Digital Library of the DiFMOE. Within the collection “Jüdisch-Deutsche Bukowina 1918+” the association’s holdings can be called up and visited both in their entirety or according to the individual member’s private collection. [s. Illustration 9] 

These are:

Oded Blaustein (group photographs: school, family)

Hedwig Brenner (photographs of several persons and groups: family documents, military, school)

Carmit Brull-Sotil (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family documents)

Anita Derman Mark (group photographs: family, school)

Dana Dimitriu (photographs of several persons and photographs of an individual: family documents; persecution of the Jews)

Zilla Ebner Helman (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, politics, military, student association)

Gabrielle Eisenscher (group photographs: family, school)

Peter Elbau (archival materials)

Yosi Eshet (group photographs: family)

Falikman (photographs of several persons; family documents)

Cornel Fleming (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, military, student association)

Lucca Ginsburg (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, school; emigration, persecution of Jews)

Ruth Glasberg Gold (group photographs: family, school)

Berti Glaubach (photographs of several persons and group photographs: student association)

David Glynn (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family and friends)

Marc Goldberger (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, student association, personalities, Jewish organizations)

Ilana Gordon (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family and friends, school)

Edgar Hauster (photographs of individuals and group photographs, archival materials: family, sport, persecution of the Jews)

Pessach Heger (photographs of individuals and group photographs: family, school)

Daniel Horowitz (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, school, Jewish organizations, military)

Linda Hutkin Slade (group photographs: persecution of the Jews)

Ya'acov Katz (group photographs: school)

Shula Klinger (photographs of several persons: family)

Simon Kreindler (group photographs: family, school)

Miriam Lava (photographs of several persons and groups: family)

Yohanan Loefler (photographs of several persons and groups: family, school)

Lilian Madfes (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, school)

- Assaf Patir (group photographs: family, school)

Henry Rendall (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, military, Jewish organizations)

Gadi Rennert (photographs of individuals and groups: family, student association, school)

Arthur Rindner (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, school, military)

Gaby Rinzler (group photographs: family, school)

Leah Rosenberg (photographs of individuals and groups: family)

Ludwig Rudel (group photographs: family, military)

Ruth Schaerf Sharvit (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family)

- Corinne Schimmer (photographs of individuals and groups: family)

Lydia Schmerler (photographs of several persons and group photographs: family, school)

- Alfred Schneider (photographs of several persons and group photographs: Jewish organizations, school)

Noam Silberberg (group photographs: family, school)

Joseph Skilnik (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family and friends)

Marcel Spiegler (group photographs: family, school)

Ethel Stern (group photographs, archival materials: persecution of the Jews)

Mimi Taylor (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, school, work; archival materials: persecution of the Jews)

Doris Wasser (photographs of several persons and group photographs: family, sports)

Fred Weisinger (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, school, Jewish organizations)

Gabriele Weissmann (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, sports, Jewish organizations, work)

Bruce Wexler (photographs of several persons: family)

Stephen Winters (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, work, school)

Yehudith Yerushalmi-Terris (photographs of individuals, several persons, and groups: family, sports, Jewish organizations, school; archival objects relating to the persecution of the Jews)

Titles were created from the original documents, and a thematic and geographical keyword was made for all documents. To preserve authenticity, the language of the original document or the original description was used in most cases when the title was awarded. Wherever reasonable in terms of research effort, the names of the persons depicted (if missing) as well as their relationship to the owner of the originals or the author of the original image descriptions were also documented in the title to make the search function as efficient as possible and thus provide added value for the user of the library.

The German administrator of the Czernowitz Discussion Group, Edgar Hauster, provided us with a valuable source of a special kind from the family archive: 122 letters from the correspondence of the grandfather Elias Hauster with his son Julius Hauster (the second son Maximilian was murdered in Auschwitz in 1943). These give the reader a more profound impression and understanding of everyday life, inner life, but above all, of the great hardship the Romanian Holocaust survivors suffered immediately after the Second World War (1946–1949).

To convey the contents of this extraordinary historical testimony, “Die Korrespondenz des Elias Hauster”, and make them accessible for academic research as best as possible, the high-resolution scans of the handwritten letters were paired with elaborately created transcriptions by Martina and Edgar Hauster in a digitally created book, and thus made full-text-searchable. [s. illustration 10]

 

Endnotes

[1] On the beginnings of the DiFMOE: Meier, Jörg, “Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa (DiFMOE). Das Portal historischer deutschsprachiger Periodika in Mittel- und Osteuropa”, in: Karpatenjahrbuch. Kalender der Karpatendeutschen aus der Slowakei 60, 2009, pp. 176–180.

[2] On the development of the DiFMOE: Schrastetter, Jan, “10 Jahre Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa”, in: Karpatenjahrbuch. Kalender der Karpatendeutschen aus der Slowakei 70, 2019, pp. 155-174.

[3] Hereinafter, known publication periods of individual titles will be given; they do not always match with the holdings of the DiFMOE Digital Library. However, completeness is sought and being worked on.

[4] With the “Karpathen-Post”-digitalisation project as an initial spark, the Martin-Opitz-Library (MOB) at Herne became the closest cooperation partner of the Digital Forum Central and Eastern Europe. The MOB, a specialist library for German history and culture in Eastern Europe, not only acts as a lender of original documents for digitization but is also in charge of the long-term preservation of the DiFMOE’s digital holdings. In addition, it advises the Digital Forum on library issues and supports it in disseminating project results.

[5] Schrastetter, Jan, Fabian Kopp, “Das Digitale Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa”, in: Jörg Meier, Fabian Kopp & Jan Schrastetter (ed.), Digitale Quellensammlungen. Erstellung – Archivierung – Präsentation – Nutzung, Berlin 2013, p. 21.

[6] Riecke, Jörg, Tina Theobald (ed.), Deutschsprachige Zeitungen im östlichen Europa. Ein Katalog, Bremen 2019, pp. 398f.

[7] Schrastetter, Kopp 2013, pp. 21f.

[8] Riecke, Theobald 2019, pp. 375f.

[9] On the project “Brünner Tagesbote” see: Schrastetter, Jan, Fabian Kopp, “Das Teilprojekt ‘Brünner Tagesbote’ als Beitrag zum Digitalen Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa (DiFMOE)”, in: Jahrbuch des Bundesinstituts für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa 19, 2011, pp. 266-274.

[10] Ibid.

[11] On Cassovia Digitalis see i.a.: Meier, Jörg, “Das Digitale Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa (DiFMOE) und die Digitale Bibliothek Kaschau”, in: Karpatenjahrbuch. Kalender der Karpatendeutschen aus der Slowakei 64, 2013, pp. 141-150 and Schrastetter, Jan, “Cassovia Digitalis - ein internationales Digitalisierungsprojekt zum europäischen Kulturhauptstadtjahr 2013”, in: Spiegelungen. Zeitschrift für deutsche Kultur und Geschichte Südosteuropas 8/2, 2013, pp. 196-198 and Tebarth, Hans-Jakob, Erdmute Lapp, “Reale und virtuelle Bibliotheken in einer europäischen Kulturhauptstadt”, in: Bibliothek und Medien. Mitteilungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bibliotheken und Dokumentationsstellen der Ost-, Ostmittel- und Südosteuropaforschung (ABDOS) 34/1-2, 2014, pp. 1-8. For Riga Digitalis: Schrastetter, Jan, “Riga Digitalis - Die Digitale Stadtbibliothek”, in: Bibliothek und Medien. Mitteilungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bibliotheken und Dokumentationsstellen der Ost-, Ostmittel- und Südosteuropaforschung (ABDOS) 34/1-2, 2014, pp. 19-22. For Pilsna Digitalis: Welzel, Stefan, “150.000 Seiten Pilsen. Die Internetbibliothek Pilsna Digitalis bietet einen umfassenden Einblick in die publizistische Vergangenheit der Kulturhauptstadt Pilsen. Ein Gespräch mit Projektleiter Jan Schrastetter”, in: Prager Zeitung, No. 41, October 2015, p. 13. For Wratislavia Digitalis: Danszczyk, Arkadiusz, Jan Schrastetter, “Das Digitale Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa e. V. (DiFMOE) und das Projekt Wratislavia Digitalis vor dem Hintergrund der Kooperation mit der Martin-Opitz Bibliothek”, in: Halub, Marek (ed.), Schlesische Gelehrtenrepublik, Dresden 2018, pp. 462-479 and: Findeisen, Silke, “Ein Blick in Breslaus wechselvolle Geschichte: Die Wratislavia Digitalis”, in: Schlesische Nachrichten, No. 6, 2016, p. 8 and: Schmilewski, Ulrich, “Kulturwerk beteiligt sich an Wratislavia Digitalis: Zahlreiche Breslau-Bücher wurden aus dem Stiftungsbestand zur Verfügung gestellt”, in: Schlesischer Kulturspiegel 51, 2016, (April-June), pp. 19f.

[12] Thanei, Christoph, “Kosice zwischen Zukunftshoffnung und vertaner Chance”, in: Neue Pressburger Zeitung. Das Deutschsprachige Magazin aus der Slowakei, December 2013 - January 2014, p. 51.

[13] On the Kramerius-Frontend of the Digital Library of the DiFMOE and how it works: Schrastetter 2019, pp. 160-169.

[14] Riecke, Theobald 2019, pp. 385f.

[15] Möbius, Thomas, “Spuren deutscher Sprache, Literatur und Kultur in Kroatien. Germanistische Institutspartnerschaft mit der Josip-Juraj-Strossmayer-Universität Osijek - Projekt erforscht Austauschbeziehungen im sprachlichen, literarischen und kulturellen Bereich - Digitalisierung deutschsprachiger Zeitungen in Kroatien”, in: uniform. Zeitung der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen 31, 2018, (No. 1, February 22nd, 2018), p. 8.

[16]  Project description on the website of the Leibnitz-Instituts für Ost- und Südosteuropaforschung.

[17] Röger, Maren, Gaëlle Fisher, Bukowina, in: Online-Lexikon zur Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Hausleitner, Mariana, "From Cooperation to Confrontation. The Changing Relations between Jews and Germans in Bukovina from 1910-1940", in: Hofmeister, Alexis (ed.), Shared Histories: Germans and Jews in Eastern Europe – Aspects of a Historical Entanglement? (thematic dossier on osmikon).

[22] Röger, Fisher 2017.

[23] Hausleitner, Mariana, “Rumänien”, in: Hausleitner, Mariana, Souzana Hazan & Barbara Hutzelmann, Die Verfolgung and Ermordung der europäischen Juden durch das nationalsozialistische Deutschland 1933-1945, vol. 13: “Slowakei, Rumänien, Bulgarien”, Berlin 2018, pp. 46-74, 70.

[24] Hausleitner 2020.

[25] Winkler, Markus, "Czernowitzer Judentum: ein Mythos am Rande Europas?", in: Ost-West. Europäische Perspektiven 9, 2008, issue 3, pp. 216-222 and Winkler, Markus, "Czernowitz/Černivci", in: Online-Lexikon zur Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa.

[26] Röger, Fisher 2017.

[27] Corbea-Hoisie, Andrei, Politik, Presse und Literatur in Czernowitz 1890-1940. Kulturgeschichtliche und imagologische Studien, Tübingen 2013, p. 14.

[28] Winkler 2008.

[29] Winkler 2013.

[30] Solomon, Francisca, “Sprache und Identität. Zu den theoretischen und typologischen Dimensionen der jüdischen Presse in Galizien und in der Bukowina während der Habsburger Zeit”, in: Corbea-Hoisie, Andrei, Ion Lihaciu & Markus Winkler, Zeitungsstadt Czernowitz. Studien zur Geschichte der deutschsprachigen Presse der Bukowina, Kaiserslautern 2014, pp. 53-67, 64.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Corbea-Hoisie 2013, pp. 14f.

[33] Hausleitner, Mariana, Markus Winkler, "Presselandschaft in der Bukowina und den Nachbarregionen. Akteure - Inhalte - Ziele (1900–1945)", in: Kakanien revisited.

[34] Marten-Finnis, Susanne, Markus Winkler, "Czernowitzer Pressefeld 1918-1940: Quelle und Diskurs. Ein Werkstattbericht des Arbeitskreises Czernowitzerpresse zur Digitalisierung von Czernowitzer Zeitungen 1918-40", in: Kakanien revisited.

[35] Ibid.

[36] Corbea-Hoisie 2013, pp. 130-133.

[37] Carasevici, Dragoş, “Die Anfänge der Ostjüdischen Zeitung und die Frage der Minderheitensprachen in der Bukowina nach der Vereinigung mit Rumänien (1919-1922) ”, in: Corbea-Hoisie, Andrei, Ion Lihaciu & Markus Winkler (ed.), Zeitungsstadt Czernowitz. Studien zur Geschichte der deutschsprachigen Presse der Bukowina, Kaiserslautern 2014, p. 159.

[38] Marten-Finnis, Winkler.

 

References

Carasevici, Dragoş, "Die Anfänge der Ostjüdischen Zeitung und die Frage der Minderheitensprachen in der Bukowina nach der Vereinigung mit Rumänien (1919-1922)", in: Corbea-Hoisie, Andrei, Ion Lihaciu & Markus Winkler (ed.), Zeitungsstadt Czernowitz. Studien zur Geschichte der deutschsprachigen Presse der Bukowina, Kaiserslautern 2014, pp. 157-164.

Corbea-Hoisie, Andrei, Politik, Presse und Literatur in Czernowitz 1890-1940. Kulturgeschichtliche und imagologische Studien, Tübingen 2013.

Corbea-Hoisie, Andrei, Ion Lihaciu & Markus Winkler (ed.), Zeitungsstadt Czernowitz. Studien zur Geschichte der deutschsprachigen Presse der Bukowina, Kaiserslautern 2014.

Danszczyk, Arkadiusz, Jan Schrastetter, "Das Digitale Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa e. V. (DiFMOE) und das Projekt Wratislavia Digitalis vor dem Hintergrund der Kooperation mit der Martin-Opitz Bibliothek", in: Halub, Marek (Hrsg.), Schlesische Gelehrtenrepublik, Dresden 2018, pp. 462-479.

Findeisen, Silke, "Ein Blick in Breslaus wechselvolle Geschichte: Die Wratislavia Digitalis", in: Schlesische Nachrichten Nr. 6/2016, p. 8.

Hausleitner, Mariana, Markus Winkler, Presselandschaft in der Bukowina und den Nachbarregionen. Akteure - Inhalte - Ziele (1900-1945), in: Kakanien revisited.

Hausleitner, Mariana, "Rumänien", in: Hausleitner, Mariana, Souzana Hazan & Barbara Hutzelmann, Die Verfolgung and Ermordung der europäischen Juden durch das nationalsozialistische Deutschland 1933-1945, vol. 13: "Slowakei, Rumänien, Bulgarien", Berlin 2018, pp. 46-74.

Hausleitner, Mariana, From Cooperation to Confrontation. The Changing Relations between Jews and Germans in Bukovina from 1910-1940, in: Hofmeister, Alexis (ed.), Shared Histories: Germans and Jews in Eastern Europe – Aspects of a Historical Entanglement? (thematic dossier on osmikon).

Marten-Finnis, Susanne, Markus Winkler, Czernowitzer Pressefeld 1918-1940: Quelle und Diskurs. Ein Werkstattbericht des Arbeitskreises Czernowitzerpresse zur Digitalisierung von Czernowitzer Zeitungen 1918-40, in: Kakanien revisited.

Meier, Jörg, "Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa (DiFMOE). Das Portal historischer deutschsprachiger Periodika in Mittel- und Osteuropa", in: Karpatenjahrbuch. Kalender der Karpatendeutschen aus der Slowakei 60, 2009, pp. 176-180.

Meier, Jörg, "Das Digitale Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa (DiFMOE) und die Digitale Bibliothek Kaschau", in: Karpatenjahrbuch. Kalender der Karpatendeutschen aus der Slowakei 64, 2013, pp. 141-150.

Meier, Jörg, Fabian Kopp & Jan Schrastetter (ed.), Digitale Quellensammlungen. Erstellung - Archivierung - Präsentation - Nutzung, Berlin 2013.

Möbius, Thomas, "Spuren deutscher Sprache, Literatur und Kultur in Kroatien. Germanistische Institutspartnerschaft mit der Josip-Juraj-Strossmayer-Universität Osijek - Projekt erforscht Austauschbeziehungen im sprachlichen, literarischen und kulturellen Bereich - Digitalisierung deutschsprachiger Zeitungen in Kroatien", in: uniform. Zeitung der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen 31, 2018 (Nr. 1, 22. Februar 2018), p. 8.

Riecke, Jörg, Tina Theobald (ed.), Deutschsprachige Zeitungen im östlichen Europa. Ein Katalog, Bremen 2019.

Röger, Maren, Gaëlle Fisher, Bukowina, in: Online-Lexikon zur Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa.

Schmilewski, Ulrich, "Kulturwerk beteiligt sich an Wratislavia Digitalis: Zahlreiche Breslau-Bücher wurden aus dem Stiftungsbestand zur Verfügung gestellt", in: Schlesischer Kulturspiegel 51, 2016, (April-June), pp. 19f.

Schrastetter, Jan, Fabian Kopp, "Das Teilprojekt Brünner Tagesbote als Beitrag zum Digitalen Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa (DiFMOE)", in: Jahrbuch des Bundesinstituts für Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im Östlichen Europa 19, 2011, pp. 266-274.

Schrastetter, Jan, Fabian Kopp, "Das Digitale Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa", in: Meier, Jörg, Fabian Kopp & Jan Schrastetter (Hrsg.), Digitale Quellensammlungen. Erstellung - Archivierung - Präsentation - Nutzung, Berlin 2013, pp. 15-28.

Schrastetter, Jan, "Cassovia Digitalis – ein internationales Digitalisierungsprojekt zum europäischen Kulturhauptstadtjahr 2013", in: Spiegelungen. Zeitschrift für deutsche Kultur und Geschichte Südosteuropas 8/2, 2013, pp. 196-198.

Schrastetter, Jan, "Riga Digitalis – Die Digitale Stadtbibliothek", in: Bibliothek und Medien. Mitteilungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bibliotheken und Dokumentationsstellen der Ost-, Ostmittel- und Südosteuropaforschung (ABDOS) 34/1-2, 2014, pp. 19-22.

Schrastetter, Jan, "10 Jahre Digitales Forum Mittel- und Osteuropa", in: Karpatenjahrbuch. Kalender der Karpatendeutschen aus der Slowakei 70, 2019, pp. 155-174.

Solomon, Francisca, "Sprache und Identität. Zu den theoretischen und typologischen Dimensionen der jüdischen Presse in Galizien und in der Bukowina während der Habsburger Zeit“, in: Corbea-Hoisie, Andrei, Ion Lihaciu & Markus Winkler (ed.), Zeitungsstadt Czernowitz. Studien zur Geschichte der deutschsprachigen Presse der Bukowina, Kaiserslautern 2014, pp. 53-67.

Tebarth, Hans-Jakob, Erdmute Lapp, "Reale und virtuelle Bibliotheken in einer europäischen Kulturhauptstadt", in: Bibliothek und Medien. Mitteilungen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Bibliotheken und Dokumentationsstellen der Ost-, Ostmittel- und Südosteuropaforschung (ABDOS) 34, 2014, pp. 1-8.

Thanei, Christoph, "Kosice zwischen Zukunftshoffnung und vertaner Chance", in: Neue Pressburger Zeitung. Das Deutschsprachige Magazin aus der Slowakei, December 2013 - January 2014, p. 51.

Weber, Albert, "Digitalisierungsprojekt zu deutschsprachigen jüdischen Zeitungen, Zeitschriften und Volkskalendern aus dem östlichen Europa", in: Mitteilungen der Vereinigung österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen & Bibliothekare 69/2, 2016, pp. 268-271.

Welzel, Stefan, "150.000 Seiten Pilsen. Die Internetbibliothek Pilsna Digitalis bietet einen umfassenden Einblick in die publizistische Vergangenheit der Kulturhauptstadt Pilsen. Ein Gespräch mit Projektleiter Jan Schrastetter", in: Prager Zeitung, No. 41, October 2015, p. 13.

Winkler, Markus, Czernowitzer Judentum: ein Mythos am Rande Europas?, in: Ost-West. Europäische Perspektiven 9, 2008, issue 3, pp. 216-222.

Winkler, Markus, Czernowitz/Černivci, in: Online-Lexikon zur Kultur und Geschichte der Deutschen im östlichen Europa.

Author

Jan Schrastetter